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language: Arabic President: Ali Abdallah Saleh
Republic of Yemen
Agricultural production is
the single most important contributor to Yemen's
economy, accounting for 20
percent of GDP. The agricultural sector provides
approximately 58 percent of the country's
employment. The labor-intensive sector is
largely underdeveloped and inefficient, as a
result of soil erosion, the high cost of credit
and land, a lack of investment, and the scarcity
of water. Most of the cultivated land is
irrigated and dependent on groundwater, but high
demand could exhaust water supplies by 2008.
Although agricultural output has increased
steadily in the past few years, crop yields
remain low relative to those produced by
Major agricultural products include fruits,
vegetables, and cereals, but production is
rarely sufficient to meet domestic demand. As a
result, Yemen continues to import most of its
food. Yemen also cultivates qat, a mildly
narcotic plant indigenous to Africa. Although
legal, the government has recently moved to ban
its consumption in public offices and on army
duty due to economic and social costs associated
with those under the influence. It continues to
be widely consumed, and future efforts to ban it
The reputed home of the Queen of Sheba, Yemen has been at the crossroads of Africa, the Middle East and Asia for thousands of years thanks to its position on the ancient spice routes.
The Romans knew this fertile and wealthy country as Arabia Felix, in contrast to the relatively barren Arabia Deserta to the north. And today it maintains its distinct character.
The modern Republic of Yemen was born in 1990 when traditionalist North Yemen and Marxist South Yemen merged after years of border wars and skirmishes. But the peace broke down in 1994 and a short civil war ended in defeat for separatist southerners and the survival of the unified Yemen.
Politics: President Ali Abdallah Saleh has been in power since 1978. Shia rebels led by Abdul-Malik al-Houthi have been conducting a low-level insurgency in the north
Economy: Yemen is the poorest country in the Middle East; economic difficulties have sparked unrest
International: Yemen has been co-operating in the US-led "war on terror", risking domestic resentment
Since unification Yemen has been modernising and opening up to the world, but it still maintains much of its tribal character and old ways. Tensions persist between the north and the south; some southerners say the northern part of the state is economically privileged.
Since the summer of 2009, hundreds have been killed and tens of thousands displaced by clashes between government troops and north-western rebels belonging to the Zaidi sect, a branch of Shia Islam in the mainly Sunni country. The conflict has acquired a regional dimension, with the Yemeni authorities accusing Iran of backing the rebels, while the rebels accuse Saudi Arabia of supporting the Yemeni government.
People wear traditional dress and the custom of chewing the narcotic plant khat in the afternoons is still widely observed. Yemen has attracted the curiosity of a growing number of tourists, although foreigners have been kidnapped by groups seeking to force concessions from the authorities.
The scene of attacks on a US warship and a French tanker, Yemen has gained a reputation as a haven for Islamic miltants. The authorities have arrested suspected al-Qaeda members and the US has supplied equipment and training for Yemen's security forces.
Thousands of illegal immigrants from Africa, including many Somalis, use Yemen as a staging post for the oil-rich Arab Gulf or Europe.
Ali Abdallah Saleh, Yemen's longest-serving leader in recent times, was re-elected to another seven-year term in September 2006. It was the first time Mr Saleh had faced a serious challenge since coming to power 28 years earlier.
Yemen under President Saleh joined the US-led "war on terror"
The opposition cried foul but international monitors said the vote was fair.
Mr Saleh became president of the new republic created by the merger of the two Yemens in 1990. He had led the Yemen Arab Republic - the northern part of present-day Yemen - since 1978 when he came to power in a military coup.
He is backed by the main pillars of power in Yemen, the tribe and the army.
He won the first-ever direct presidential elections in 1999 with more than 96% of the vote. The main opposition party, which was barred from fielding a candidate, described the poll as a sham.
President Saleh's government has cooperated with the US in its "war on terror" and has settled border disputes with its neighbours, Saudi Arabia and Oman.
He joined the army when he was 16 and rose through the ranks to become field marshal.